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Soluble biomarkers in osteoarthritis in 2022: year in review

  • F.A.C. Rocha
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence and reprint requests to: F.A.C. Rocha, Rua Cel. Nunes de Melo, 1315, Rodolfo Teófilo, 60430-270 Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. Tel/fax: 55-85-3366-8243.
    Affiliations
    Department of Internal Medicine, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE 60430-270, Brazil
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  • S.A. Ali
    Affiliations
    Bone and Joint Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, USA

    Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA

    Department of Physiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
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Published:September 27, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2022.09.005

      Summary

      Objective

      To review articles reporting on the development of soluble biomarkers in osteoarthritis (OA) over the past year.

      Design

      Two literature searches were conducted using the PubMed database for articles published between April 1, 2021 and March 31, 2022. Two searches were done, one on soluble biomarkers and another on circulating non-coding RNAs in OA. Additional articles were hand-picked to highlight emerging biomarker trends in OA.

      Results

      Of 348 publications retrieved, we included 20 articles with 3 that were hand-picked for the narrative synthesis. We review recent data on soluble biomarkers and circulating non-coding microRNAs in OA using the BIPED classification system. We highlight studies using proteomics to show that cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1) is a promising biomarker, helping diagnose and estimate severity in hand, hip, and knee OA. Subtle changes in the structure of glycosaminoglycans from the extracellular cartilage matrix were shown to discriminate OA from non-OA cartilage. C-reactive protein metabolite (CRPM) and collagen metabolites may help discriminate subsets of OA patients as well as disease progression. Additionally, physical activity may impact determination of biomarkers. We also report on circulating microRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs in OA and their predictive accuracy in diagnosis and prognosis.

      Conclusions

      Biomarkers for routine use are still an unmet need in the OA clinical scenario. Emerging data and novel classes of biomarkers (i.e., non-coding RNAs) show promise. Although still requiring validation in multiple independent cohorts, the past year brought advances towards a ready-to-use, reproducible, cost-effective biomarker, namely CRTAC1, to better manage the OA patient.

      Keywords

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