Advertisement

The impact of waiting time for orthopaedic consultation on pain levels in individuals with osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Author Footnotes
    a Co-first author. These authors contributed equally to the paper.
    R.K. Patten
    Footnotes
    a Co-first author. These authors contributed equally to the paper.
    Affiliations
    Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    a Co-first author. These authors contributed equally to the paper.
    A. Tacey
    Footnotes
    a Co-first author. These authors contributed equally to the paper.
    Affiliations
    Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • M. Bourke
    Affiliations
    Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia

    School of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Western University, London, Canada
    Search for articles by this author
  • C. Smith
    Affiliations
    Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia

    School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia

    Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science (AIMSS), Victoria University, University of Melbourne and Western Health, Melbourne, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • M. Pascoe
    Affiliations
    Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • S. Vogrin
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

    Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science (AIMSS), Victoria University, University of Melbourne and Western Health, Melbourne, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • A. Parker
    Affiliations
    Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • M.J. McKenna
    Affiliations
    Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • P. Tran
    Affiliations
    Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia

    Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science (AIMSS), Victoria University, University of Melbourne and Western Health, Melbourne, Australia

    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Western Health, Melbourne, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • M. De Gori
    Affiliations
    Physiotherapy, Western Health, Melbourne, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • C.M. Said
    Affiliations
    Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science (AIMSS), Victoria University, University of Melbourne and Western Health, Melbourne, Australia

    Physiotherapy, Western Health, Melbourne, Australia

    Physiotherapy, Melbourne School of Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • V. Apostolopoulos
    Affiliations
    Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • R. Lane
    Affiliations
    Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    b Co-senior author. These authors contributed equally to the paper.
    M.N. Woessner
    Footnotes
    b Co-senior author. These authors contributed equally to the paper.
    Affiliations
    Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    b Co-senior author. These authors contributed equally to the paper.
    I. Levinger
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence and reprint requests to: I. Levinger, Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia. Tel: 61-03-9919-5343 (Phone), 61-413481104 (Mobile).
    Footnotes
    b Co-senior author. These authors contributed equally to the paper.
    Affiliations
    Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia

    Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science (AIMSS), Victoria University, University of Melbourne and Western Health, Melbourne, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    a Co-first author. These authors contributed equally to the paper.
    b Co-senior author. These authors contributed equally to the paper.
Published:August 09, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2022.07.007

      Summary

      Objective

      Time spent waiting for access to orthopaedic specialist health services has been suggested to result in increased pain in individuals with osteoarthritis (OA). We assessed whether time spent on an orthopaedic waiting list resulted in a detrimental effect on pain levels in patients with knee or hip OA.

      Methods

      We searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and EBSCOhost databases from inception until September 2021. Eligible articles included individuals with OA on an orthopaedic waitlist and not receiving active treatment, and reported pain measures at two or more time points. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled effect of waiting time on pain levels. Meta-regression was used to determine predictors of effect size.

      Results

      Thirty-three articles were included (n = 2,490 participants, 67 ± 3 years and 62% female). The range of waiting time was 2 weeks to 2 years (20.8 ± 18.8 weeks). There was no significant change in pain over time (effect size = 0.082, 95% CI = −0.009, 0.172), nor was the length of time associated with longitudinal changes in pain over time (β = 0.004, 95% CI = −0.005, 0.012). Body mass index was a significant predictor of pain (β = −0.043, 95% CI = −0.079, 0.006), whereas age and sex were not.

      Conclusions

      Pain remained stable for up to 1 year in patients with OA on an orthopaedic waitlist. Future research is required to understand whether pain increases in patients waiting longer than 1 year.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Hunter D.J.
        • Bierma-Zeinstra S.
        Osteoarthritis.
        Lancet. 2019; 393: 1745-1759https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30417-9
        • Cross M.
        • Smith E.
        • Hoy D.
        • Nolte S.
        • Ackerman I.
        • Fransen M.
        • et al.
        The global burden of hip and knee osteoarthritis: estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study.
        Ann Rheum Dis. 2014; 73: 1323-1330https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204763
        • O'Neill T.W.
        • Felson D.T.
        Mechanisms of osteoarthritis (OA) pain.
        Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2018; 16: 611-616https://doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0477-1
        • Daigle M.E.
        • Weinstein A.M.
        • Katz J.N.
        • Losina E.
        The cost-effectiveness of total joint arthroplasty: a systematic review of published literature.
        Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2012; 26: 649-658https://doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2012.07.013
        • Kamaruzaman H.
        • Kinghorn P.
        • Oppong R.
        Cost-effectiveness of surgical interventions for the management of osteoarthritis: a systematic review of the literature.
        BMC Muscoskel Disord. 2017; 18: 183https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-017-1540-2
        • Skou S.T.
        • Roos E.M.
        • Laursen M.B.
        • Rathleff M.S.
        • Arendt-Nielsen L.
        • Simonsen O.
        • et al.
        A randomized, controlled trial of total knee replacement.
        N Engl J Med. 2015; 373: 1597-1606https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1505467
        • Neuprez A.
        • Neuprez A.H.
        • Kaux J.-F.
        • Kurth W.
        • Daniel C.
        • Thirion T.
        • et al.
        Total joint replacement improves pain, functional quality of life, and health utilities in patients with late-stage knee and hip osteoarthritis for up to 5 years.
        Clin Rheumatol. 2020; 39: 861-871https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-019-04811-y
        • Royal Australian College of General Practitioners
        Guideline for the Management of Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis.
        Royal Australian College of General Practitioners East Melbourne, 2018
        • Ackerman I.N.
        • Bohensky M.A.
        • De Steiger R.
        • Brand C.A.
        • Eskelinen A.
        • Fenstad A.M.
        • et al.
        Substantial rise in the lifetime risk of primary total knee replacement surgery for osteoarthritis from 2003 to 2013: an international, population-level analysis.
        Osteoarthr Cartil. 2017; 25: 455-461https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2016.11.005
        • Ackerman I.N.
        • Bohensky M.A.
        • de Steiger R.
        • Brand C.A.
        • Eskelinen A.
        • Fenstad A.M.
        • et al.
        Lifetime risk of primary total hip replacement surgery for osteoarthritis from 2003 to 2013: a multinational analysis using national registry data.
        Arthritis Care Res. 2017; 69: 1659-1667https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.23197
        • Sharif B.
        • Kopec J.
        • Bansback N.
        • Rahman M.M.
        • Flanagan W.M.
        • Wong H.
        • et al.
        Projecting the direct cost burden of osteoarthritis in Canada using a microsimulation model.
        Osteoarthr Cartil. 2015; 23: 1654-1663https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2015.05.029
        • Inacio M.C.S.
        • Graves S.E.
        • Pratt N.L.
        • Roughead E.E.
        • Nemes S.
        Increase in total joint arthroplasty projected from 2014 to 2046 in Australia: a conservative local model with international implications.
        Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2017; 475: 2130-2137https://doi.org/10.1007/s11999-017-5377-7
        • Culliford D.
        • Maskell J.
        • Judge A.
        • Cooper C.
        • Prieto-Alhambra D.
        • Arden N.K.
        Future projections of total hip and knee arthroplasty in the UK: results from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.
        Osteoarthr Cartil. 2015; 23: 594-600https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2014.12.022
        • Singh J.A.
        • Yu S.
        • Chen L.
        • Cleveland J.D.
        Rates of total joint replacement in the United States: future projections to 2020-2040 using the national inpatient sample.
        J Rheumatol. 2019; 46: 1134-1140https://doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.170990
        • Ackerman I.N.
        • Bohensky M.A.
        • Zomer E.
        • Tacey M.
        • Gorelik A.
        • Brand C.A.
        • et al.
        The projected burden of primary total knee and hip replacement for osteoarthritis in Australia to the year 2030.
        BMC Muscoskel Disord. 2019; 20: 90https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-019-2411-9
        • Australian Institute of Health Welfare
        Australia's Health 2018.
        AIHW, Canberra2018
        • Vergara I.
        • Bilbao A.
        • Gonzalez N.
        • Escobar A.
        • Quintana J.M.
        Factors and consequences of waiting times for total hip arthroplasty.
        Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011; 469: 1413-1420https://doi.org/10.1007/s11999-010-1753-2
        • Kapstad H.
        • Rustøen T.
        • Hanestad B.R.
        • Moum T.
        • Langeland N.
        • Stavem K.
        Changes in pain, stiffness and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis waiting for hip or knee joint replacement surgery.
        Osteoarthr Cartil. 2007; 15: 837-843https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2007.01.015
        • Desmeules F.
        • Dionne C.E.
        • Belzile E.
        • Bourbonnais R.
        • Frémont P.
        The burden of wait for knee replacement surgery: effects on pain, function and health-related quality of life at the time of surgery.
        Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 2010; 49: 945-954https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kep469
        • McHugh G.A.
        • Luker K.A.
        • Campbell M.
        • Kay P.R.
        • Silman A.J.
        A longitudinal study exploring pain control, treatment and service provision for individuals with end-stage lower limb osteoarthritis.
        Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 2007; 46: 631-637https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kel355
        • Ostendorf M.
        • Buskens E.
        • van Stel H.
        • Schrijvers A.
        • Marting L.
        • Dhert W.
        • et al.
        Waiting for total hip arthroplasty: avoidable loss in quality time and preventable deterioration.
        J Arthroplasty. 2004; 19: 302-309https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2003.09.015
        • Aranda-Villalobos P.
        • Fernández-de-las-Peñas C.
        • Navarro-Espigares J.L.
        • Hernández-Torres E.
        • Villalobos M.
        • Arendt-Nielsen L.
        • et al.
        Normalization of widespread pressure pain hypersensitivity after total hip replacement in patients with hip osteoarthritis is associated with clinical and functional improvements.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2013; 65: 1262-1270https://doi.org/10.1002/art.37884
        • Hirvonen J.
        • Tuominen U.
        • Seitsalo S.
        • Lehto M.
        • Paavolainen P.
        • Hietaniemi K.
        • et al.
        The effect of waiting time on health-related quality of life, pain, and physical function in patients awaiting primary total hip replacement: a randomized controlled trial.
        Value Health. 2009; 12: 942-947https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2009.00544.x
        • Maetzel A.
        • Li L.C.
        • Pencharz J.
        • Tomlinson G.
        • Bombardier C.
        The economic burden associated with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and hypertension: a comparative study.
        Ann Rheum Dis. 2004; 63: 395-401https://doi.org/10.1136/ard.2003.006031
        • Lau Y.-S.
        • Harrison M.
        • Sutton M.
        Association between symptom duration and patient-reported outcomes before and after hip replacement surgery.
        Arthritis Care Res. 2020; 72: 423-431https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.23838
        • Desmeules F.
        • Dionne C.E.
        • Belzile É.L.
        • Bourbonnais R.
        • Champagne F.
        • Frémont P.
        Determinants of pain, functional limitations and health-related quality of life six months after total knee arthroplasty: results from a prospective cohort study.
        BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil. 2013; 5: 2https://doi.org/10.1186/2052-1847-5-2
        • Bido J.
        • Yang Y.H.
        • Collins J.E.
        • Dong Y.
        • Driscoll D.A.
        • Alcantara L.A.
        • et al.
        Predictors of patient-reported outcomes of total joint arthroplasty in a developing country.
        J Arthroplasty. 2017; 32: 1756-1762https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2017.01.032
        • Lenguerrand E.
        • Wylde V.
        • Gooberman-Hill R.
        • Sayers A.
        • Brunton L.
        • Beswick A.D.
        • et al.
        Trajectories of pain and function after primary hip and knee arthroplasty: the ADAPT cohort study.
        PLoS One. 2016; 11e0149306https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149306
        • Bartley E.J.
        • Palit S.
        • Staud R.
        Predictors of osteoarthritis pain: the importance of resilience.
        Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2017; 19: 57https://doi.org/10.1007/s11926-017-0683-3
        • Vellucci R.
        Heterogeneity of chronic pain.
        Clin Drug Invest. 2012; 32: 3-10https://doi.org/10.2165/11630030-000000000-00000
        • Alkan B.M.
        • Fidan F.
        • Tosun A.
        • Ardıçoğlu Ö.
        Quality of life and self-reported disability in patients with knee osteoarthritis.
        Mod Rheumatol. 2014; 24: 166-171https://doi.org/10.3109/14397595.2013.854046
        • Moorman C.T.
        • Kirwan T.
        • Share J.
        • Vannabouathong C.
        Patient preferences regarding surgical interventions for knee osteoarthritis.
        Clin Med Insights Arthritis Musculoskelet Disord. 2017; 101179544117732039https://doi.org/10.1177/1179544117732039
        • Bastick A.N.
        • Wesseling J.
        • Damen J.
        • Verkleij S.P.
        • Emans P.J.
        • Bindels P.J.
        • et al.
        Defining knee pain trajectories in early symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in primary care: 5-year results from a nationwide prospective cohort study (CHECK).
        Br J Gen Pract. 2016; 66: e32-e39https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp15X688129
        • Radojčić M.R.
        • Arden N.K.
        • Yang X.
        • Strauss V.Y.
        • Birrell F.
        • Cooper C.
        • et al.
        Pain trajectory defines knee osteoarthritis subgroups: a prospective observational study.
        Pain. 2020; 161: 2841-2851https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001975
        • Collins J.E.
        • Katz J.N.
        • Dervan E.E.
        • Losina E.
        Trajectories and risk profiles of pain in persons with radiographic, symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.
        Osteoarthr Cartil. 2014; 22: 622-630https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2014.03.009
        • Page M.J.
        • McKenzie J.E.
        • Bossuyt P.M.
        • Boutron I.
        • Hoffmann T.C.
        • Mulrow C.D.
        • et al.
        The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews.
        BMJ. 2021; 372: n71https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n71
        • Sterne J.A.C.
        • Savović J.
        • Page M.J.
        • Elbers R.G.
        • Blencowe N.S.
        • Boutron I.
        • et al.
        RoB 2: a revised tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials.
        BMJ. 2019; 366: l4898https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l4898
        • Slim K.
        • Nini E.
        • Forestier D.
        • Kwiatkowski F.
        • Panis Y.
        • Chipponi J.
        Methodological index for non-randomized studies (minors): development and validation of a new instrument.
        ANZ J Surg. 2003; 73: 712-716https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1445-2197.2003.02748.x
        • Borenstein M.
        • Hedges L.V.
        • Higgins J.P.
        • Rothstein H.R.
        Introduction to Meta-Analysis.
        John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK2009
        • Higgins J.P.T.
        • Li T.
        • Deeks J.L.
        Choosing effect measures and computing estimates of effect.
        in: Higgins J.P.T. Thomas J. Chandler J. Cumpston M. Li T. Page M.J. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. 2nd edn. Wiley-Blackwel, Hoboken, NJ2019: 143-176
        • Wan X.
        • Wang W.
        • Liu J.
        • Tong T.
        Estimating the sample mean and standard deviation from the sample size, median, range and/or interquartile range.
        BMC Med Res Methodol. 2014; 14: 135https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-14-135
        • Hedges L.V.
        Distribution theory for glass's estimator of effect size and related estimators.
        J Educ Stat. 1981; 6: 107-128https://doi.org/10.3102/10769986006002107
        • Morris S.B.
        • DeShon R.P.
        Combining effect size estimates in meta-analysis with repeated measures and independent-groups designs.
        Psychol Methods. 2002; 7: 105-125https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989x.7.1.105
        • Fisher Z.
        • Tipton E.
        • Zhipeng H.
        Robust variance meta-regression.
        2017 (Available from:)
        • Pustejovsky J.
        Cluster-robust (sandwich) variance estimators with small-sample corrections.
        2021 (Available from:)
        • Viechtbauer W.
        Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package.
        J Stat Software. 2010; 36: 1-48https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v036.i03
        • Wickham H.
        ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis.
        Springer-Verlag New York, 2016 (Available from)
        • Borenstein M.
        • Hedges L.V.
        • Higgins J.P.T.
        • Rothstein H.R.
        A basic introduction to fixed-effect and random-effects models for meta-analysis.
        Res Synth Methods. 2010; 1: 97-111https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.12
        • Hedges L.V.
        • Tipton E.
        • Johnson M.C.
        Robust variance estimation in meta-regression with dependent effect size estimates.
        Res Synth Methods. 2010; 1: 39-65https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.5
        • Tanner-Smith E.E.
        • Tipton E.
        Robust variance estimation with dependent effect sizes: practical considerations including a software tutorial in Stata and spss.
        Res Synth Methods. 2014; 5: 13-30https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.1091
        • Tipton E.
        Small sample adjustments for robust variance estimation with meta-regression.
        Psychol Methods. 2015; 20: 375-393https://doi.org/10.1037/met0000011
        • Deeks J.J.
        • Higgins J.P.
        • Altman D.G.
        • Group C.S.M.
        Analysing data and undertaking meta-analyses.
        in: Higgins J.P.T. Green S. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. 2019: 241-284
        • Egger M.
        • Smith G.D.
        • Schneider M.
        • Minder C.
        Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test.
        BMJ. 1997; 315: 629-634https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.315.7109.629
        • Pustejovsky J.E.
        • Rodgers M.A.
        Testing for funnel plot asymmetry of standardized mean differences.
        Res Synth Methods. 2019; 10: 57-71https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.1332
        • Patsopoulos N.A.
        • Evangelou E.
        • Ioannidis J.P.
        Sensitivity of between-study heterogeneity in meta-analysis: proposed metrics and empirical evaluation.
        Int J Epidemiol. 2008; 37: 1148-1157https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyn065
        • Tipton E.
        • Pustejovsky J.E.
        Small-sample adjustments for tests of moderators and model fit using robust variance estimation in meta-regression.
        J Educ Behav Stat. 2015; 40: 604-634https://doi.org/10.3102/1076998615606099
        • Beaupre L.A.
        • Lier D.
        • Davies D.M.
        • Johnston D.B.
        The effect of a preoperative exercise and education program on functional recovery, health related quality of life, and health service utilization following primary total knee arthroplasty.
        J Rheumatol. 2004; 31: 1166-1173
        • Bruce-Brand R.A.
        • Walls R.J.
        • Ong J.C.
        • Emerson B.S.
        • O'Byrne J.M.
        • Moyna N.M.
        Effects of home-based resistance training and neuromuscular electrical stimulation in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.
        BMC Muscoskel Disord. 2012; 13: 118https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-13-118
        • Calatayud J.
        • Casaña J.
        • Ezzatvar Y.
        • Jakobsen M.D.
        • Sundstrup E.
        • Andersen L.L.
        High-intensity preoperative training improves physical and functional recovery in the early post-operative periods after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial.
        Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2017; 25: 2864-2872https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-016-3985-5
        • das Nair R.
        • Mhizha-Murira J.R.
        • Anderson P.
        • Carpenter H.
        • Clarke S.
        • Groves S.
        • et al.
        Home-based pre-surgical psychological intervention for knee osteoarthritis (HAPPiKNEES): a feasibility randomized controlled trial.
        Clin Rehabil. 2018; 32: 777-789https://doi.org/10.1177/0269215518755426
        • Ho K.W.
        • Pong G.
        • Poon W.C.
        • Chung K.Y.
        • Kwok Y.Y.
        • Chiu K.H.
        Progression of health-related quality of life of patients waiting for total knee arthroplasty.
        J Eval Clin Pract. 2021; 27: 69-74https://doi.org/10.1111/jep.13388
        • Kim S.
        • Hsu F.-C.
        • Groban L.
        • Williamson J.
        • Messier S.
        A pilot study of aquatic prehabilitation in adults with knee osteoarthritis undergoing total knee arthroplasty – short term outcome.
        BMC Muscoskel Disord. 2021; 22: 388https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04253-1
        • Nuñez M.
        • Nuñez E.
        • Segur J.M.
        • Macule F.
        • Quinto L.
        • Hernandez M.V.
        • et al.
        The effect of an educational program to improve health-related quality of life in patients with osteoarthritis on waiting list for total knee replacement: a randomized study.
        Osteoarthr Cartil. 2006; 14: 279-285https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2005.10.002
        • Rittharomya J.
        • Aree-ue S.
        • Malathum P.
        • Orathai P.
        • Belza B.
        • Kawinwonggowit V.
        The effectiveness of preoperative quadriceps exercise and diet control program for older adults waiting for total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial.
        Pacific Rim Int J Nurs Res. 2020; 24: 485-501
        • Skoffer B.
        • Maribo T.
        • Mechlenburg I.
        • Hansen P.M.
        • Søballe K.
        • Dalgas U.
        Efficacy of preoperative progressive resistance training on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2016; 68: 1239-1251https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.22825
        • Soni A.
        • Joshi A.
        • Mudge N.
        • Wyatt M.
        • Williamson L.
        Supervised exercise plus acupuncture for moderate to severe knee osteoarthritis: a small randomised controlled trial.
        Acupunct Med. 2012; 30: 176-181https://doi.org/10.1136/acupmed-2012-010128
        • Tantavisut S.
        • Tanavalee A.
        • Honsawek S.
        • Suantawee T.
        • Ngarmukos S.
        • Adisakwatana S.
        • et al.
        Effect of vitamin E on oxidative stress level in blood, synovial fluid, and synovial tissue in severe knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled study.
        BMC Muscoskel Disord. 2017; 18: 281https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-017-1637-7
        • Tuominen U.
        • Sintonen H.
        • Hirvonen J.
        • Seitsalo S.
        • Paavolainen P.
        • Lehto M.
        • et al.
        Is longer waiting time for total knee replacement associated with health outcomes and medication costs? Randomized clinical trial.
        Value Health. 2010; 13: 998-1004https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2010.00779.x
        • Walls R.J.
        • McHugh G.
        • O'Gorman D.J.
        • Moyna N.M.
        • O'Byrne J.M.
        Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study.
        BMC Muscoskel Disord. 2010; 11: 119https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-11-119
        • Williamson L.
        • Wyatt M.R.
        • Yein K.
        • Melton J.T.
        Severe knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture, physiotherapy (supervised exercise) and standard management for patients awaiting knee replacement.
        Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 2007; 46: 1445-1449https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kem119
        • Rosedale R.
        • Rastogi R.
        • May S.
        • Chesworth B.M.
        • Filice F.
        • Willis S.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of exercise intervention as determined by the McKenzie System of Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy for knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.
        J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2014; 44 (a1-181): 173-181https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2014.4791
        • Bachrach-Lindström M.
        • Karlsson S.
        • Pettersson L.G.
        • Johansson T.
        Patients on the waiting list for total hip replacement: a 1-year follow-up study.
        Scand J Caring Sci. 2008; 22: 536-542https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6712.2007.00567.x
        • Berge D.J.
        • Dolin S.J.
        • Williams A.C.
        • Harman R.
        Pre-operative and post-operative effect of a pain management programme prior to total hip replacement: a randomized controlled trial.
        Pain. 2004; 110: 33-39https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2004.03.002
        • Ferrara P.E.
        • Rabini A.
        • Maggi L.
        • Piazzini D.B.
        • Logroscino G.
        • Magliocchetti G.
        • et al.
        Effect of pre-operative physiotherapy in patients with end-stage osteoarthritis undergoing hip arthroplasty.
        Clin Rehabil. 2008; 22: 977-986https://doi.org/10.1177/0269215508094714
        • Gilbey H.J.
        • Ackland T.R.
        • Wang A.W.
        • Morton A.R.
        • Trouchet T.
        • Tapper J.
        Exercise improves early functional recovery after total hip arthroplasty.
        Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2003; 408: 193-200
        • Hermann A.
        • Holsgaard-Larsen A.
        • Zerahn B.
        • Mejdahl S.
        • Overgaard S.
        Preoperative progressive explosive-type resistance training is feasible and effective in patients with hip osteoarthritis scheduled for total hip arthroplasty--a randomized controlled trial.
        Osteoarthr Cartil. 2016; 24: 91-98https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2015.07.030
        • Oosting E.
        • Jans M.P.
        • Dronkers J.J.
        • Naber R.H.
        • Dronkers-Landman C.M.
        • Appelman-de Vries S.M.
        • et al.
        Preoperative home-based physical therapy versus usual care to improve functional health of frail older adults scheduled for elective total hip arthroplasty: a pilot randomized controlled trial.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012; 93: 610-616https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2011.11.006
        • Thorman P.
        • Dixner A.
        • Sundberg T.
        Effects of chiropractic care on pain and function in patients with hip osteoarthritis waiting for arthroplasty: a clinical pilot trial.
        J Manipul Physiol Therapeut. 2010; 33: 438-444https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmpt.2010.06.006
        • McHugh G.A.
        • Campbell M.
        • Luker K.A.
        Quality of care for individuals with osteoarthritis: a longitudinal study.
        J Eval Clin Pract. 2012; 18: 534-541https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2753.2010.01616.x
        • Villadsen A.
        • Overgaard S.
        • Holsgaard-Larsen A.
        • Christensen R.
        • Roos E.M.
        Postoperative effects of neuromuscular exercise prior to hip or knee arthroplasty: a randomised controlled trial.
        Ann Rheum Dis. 2014; 73: 1130-1137https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-203135
        • Rooks D.S.
        • Huang J.
        • Bierbaum B.E.
        • Bolus S.A.
        • Rubano J.
        • Connolly C.E.
        • et al.
        Effect of preoperative exercise on measures of functional status in men and women undergoing total hip and knee arthroplasty.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2006; 55: 700-708https://doi.org/10.1002/art.22223
        • McHugh G.A.
        • Luker K.A.
        • Campbell M.
        • Kay P.R.
        • Silman A.J.
        Pain, physical functioning and quality of life of individuals awaiting total joint replacement: a longitudinal study.
        J Eval Clin Pract. 2008; 14: 19-26https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2753.2007.00777.x
        • Crotty M.
        • Prendergast J.
        • Battersby M.W.
        • Rowett D.
        • Graves S.E.
        • Leach G.
        • et al.
        Self-management and peer support among people with arthritis on a hospital joint replacement waiting list: a randomised controlled trial.
        Osteoarthr Cartil. 2009; 17: 1428-1433https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2009.05.010
        • Saw M.M.
        • Kruger-Jakins T.
        • Edries N.
        • Parker R.
        Significant improvements in pain after a six-week physiotherapist-led exercise and education intervention, in patients with osteoarthritis awaiting arthroplasty, in South Africa: a randomised controlled trial.
        BMC Muscoskel Disord. 2016; 17: 236https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-016-1088-6
        • Hoogeboom T.J.
        • van den Ende C.H.
        • van der Sluis G.
        • Elings J.
        • Dronkers J.J.
        • Aiken A.B.
        • et al.
        The impact of waiting for total joint replacement on pain and functional status: a systematic review.
        Osteoarthr Cartil. 2009; 17: 1420-1427https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2009.05.008
        • Bannuru R.R.
        • Osani M.
        • Vaysbrot E.
        • Arden N.
        • Bennell K.
        • Bierma-Zeinstra S.
        • et al.
        OARSI guidelines for the non-surgical management of knee, hip, and polyarticular osteoarthritis.
        Osteoarthr Cartil. 2019; 27: 1578-1589https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2019.06.011
      1. An updated algorithm recommendation for the management of knee osteoarthritis from the European society for clinical and economic aspects of osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and musculoskeletal diseases (ESCEO).
        in: Bruyère O. Honvo G. Veronese N. Arden N.K. Branco J. Curtis E.M. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. Elsevier, 2019
        • Hall M.
        • Castelein B.
        • Wittoek R.
        • Calders P.
        • Van Ginckel A.
        Diet-induced weight loss alone or combined with exercise in overweight or obese people with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2019; 48: 765-777https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2018.06.005
        • Atukorala I.
        • Makovey J.
        • Lawler L.
        • Messier S.P.
        • Bennell K.
        • Hunter D.J.
        Is there a dose-response relationship between weight loss and symptom improvement in persons with knee osteoarthritis?.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2016; 68: 1106-1114https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.22805
        • Seward M.W.
        • Chen A.F.
        Obesity, preoperative weight loss, and telemedicine before total joint arthroplasty: a review.
        Arthroplasty. 2022; 4: 2https://doi.org/10.1186/s42836-021-00102-7
        • Morris J.
        • Twizeyemariya A.
        • Grimmer K.
        What is the current evidence of the impact on quality of life whilst waiting for management/treatment of orthopaedic/musculoskeletal complaints? A systematic scoping review.
        Qual Life Res. 2018; 27: 2227-2242https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-018-1846-z
        • Parsons G.E.
        • Godfrey H.
        • Jester R.F.
        Living with severe osteoarthritis while awaiting hip and knee joint replacement surgery.
        Muscoskel Care. 2009; 7: 121-135https://doi.org/10.1002/msc.145
        • Haskins R.
        • Henderson J.M.
        • Bogduk N.
        Health professional consultation and use of conservative management strategies in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis awaiting orthopaedic consultation.
        Aust J Prim Health. 2014; 20: 305-310
        • Patten R.K.
        • Tacey A.
        • Pile R.
        • Parker A.
        • De Gori M.
        • Tran P.
        • et al.
        Digital self-management interventions for osteoarthritis: a systematic scoping review of intervention characteristics, adherence and attrition.
        Arch Publ Health. 2022; 80: 103https://doi.org/10.1186/s13690-022-00854-x
        • Jiang L.
        • Tian W.
        • Wang Y.
        • Rong J.
        • Bao C.
        • Liu Y.
        • et al.
        Body mass index and susceptibility to knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Joint Bone Spine. 2012; 79: 291-297https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2011.05.015
        • King L.K.
        • March L.
        • Anandacoomarasamy A.
        Obesity & osteoarthritis.
        Indian J Med Res. 2013; 138: 185-193
        • Parry E.
        • Ogollah R.
        • Peat G.
        Significant pain variability in persons with, or at high risk of, knee osteoarthritis: preliminary investigation based on secondary analysis of cohort data.
        BMC Muscoskel Disord. 2017; 18: 80https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-017-1434-3
        • Pan F.
        • Jones G.
        Clinical perspective on pain and pain phenotypes in osteoarthritis.
        Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2018; 20: 79https://doi.org/10.1007/s11926-018-0796-3
        • Dimitroulas T.
        • Duarte R.V.
        • Behura A.
        • Kitas G.D.
        • Raphael J.H.
        Neuropathic pain in osteoarthritis: a review of pathophysiological mechanisms and implications for treatment.
        Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2014; 44: 145-154https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2014.05.011
        • Lee Y.C.
        • Nassikas N.J.
        • Clauw D.J.
        The role of the central nervous system in the generation and maintenance of chronic pain in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and fibromyalgia.
        Arthritis Res Ther. 2011; 13: 211https://doi.org/10.1186/ar3306
        • Schaible H.G.
        Mechanisms of chronic pain in osteoarthritis.
        Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2012; 14: 549-556https://doi.org/10.1007/s11926-012-0279-x
        • Dery J.
        • Ruiz A.
        • Routhier F.
        • Belanger V.
        • Cote A.
        • Ait-Kadi D.
        • et al.
        A systematic review of patient prioritization tools in non-emergency healthcare services.
        Syst Rev. 2020; 9: 227https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01482-8
        • Vergara I.
        • Bilbao A.
        • Gonzalez N.
        • Escobar A.
        • Quintana J.M.
        Factors and consequences of waiting times for total hip arthroplasty.
        Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011; 469: 1413-1420https://doi.org/10.1007/s11999-010-1753-2