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Joint replacement and cardiovascular health

Published:November 30, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2021.11.011
      Our understanding of osteoarthritis (OA) has developed significantly over the last two decades. While the disease has traditionally been thought of as ‘degenerative’ or the result of ‘wear and tear’, we now understand that OA has a significant inflammatory component and should be thought of in terms of how it affects individuals as a whole, rather than solely its joint-specific impact. It is now clear that OA has a multifactorial etiology, resulting from an interplay between person-level (e.g., old age, female sex, obesity) and joint-level (e.g., repetitive use, muscle weakness) factors
      • Deveza L.A.
      • Nelson A.E.
      • Loeser R.F.
      Phenotypes of osteoarthritis: current state and future implications.
      . All joint tissues may be involved
      • Katz J.N.
      • Arant K.R.
      • Loeser R.F.
      Diagnosis and treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis: a review.
      , ultimately leading to changes in tissue architecture, metabolism, and function, and ultimately to joint failure
      • Xie C.
      • Chen Q.
      Adipokines: new therapeutic target for osteoarthritis?.
      .
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